ACCA’s Code of Ethics and Conduct (2016)
IESBA’s Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (Revised May 2015)
IESBA–Changes to the Code Addressing Certain Non-Assurance Services Provisions for Audit and Assurance Clients Ethical Considerations Relating to Audit Fee Setting in the Context of Downward Fee Pressure (January 2016)
首先大家要对上述准则详细掌握，包括基本的道德准则：Integrity, Objectivity, Professional Competence and Due Care, Confidentiality, and Professional Behaviour 这五条，以及如Self Review, Self Interest, Advocacy, Familiarity, and Intimidation 这五类道德威胁。
(a) Identify threats to independence
(b) Evaluate the significance of the threats identified
(c) Apply safeguards, when necessary, to eliminate the threats or reduce them to an acceptable level.
The audit committee of, Mumbai Co, has asked the partner to consider whether it would be possible for the audit team to perform a review of the company’s internal control system. A number of recent incidents have raised concerns amongst the management team that controls have deteriorated and that this has increased the risk of fraud, as well as inefficient commercial practices. The auditor’s report for the audit of the financial statements of Mumbai Co for the year ended 31 March 2016 was signed a few weeks ago. Mumbai Co is a listed company.
Required: Comment on the ethical issues raised and the actions your firm should take in response to the client’s request. (6 marks)
在上面这个例题中，要求我们为被审计客户提供额外的非审计服务-对其内控系统进行评价。这会导致self-review的威胁，并可能导致承担management responsibility。当然识别出这种威胁仅仅是回答问题的第一步，只回答威胁的名称是不会得分的，我们需要进一步的分析解释。 因此，要如下作答：
Providing a review of the company’s system and controls gives rise to a self-review threat as these controls will then be reviewed by the firm when determining our audit strategy. The firm may be reluctant to highlight errors or adopt a substantive approach during the audit as this may highlight deficiencies in the firm’s work on the additional service. (此答案可得1分)
The design of systems and controls is a management responsibility so a review of such may give rise to a situation where the auditor is assuming a management responsibility by taking on the role of management. (此答案可得1分)
The code states that the threat to independence of undertaking management responsibilities for an audit client is so significant that there are no safeguards which could reduce the threat to an acceptable level. (此答案可得1分)
Management responsibility can be avoided if the client takes responsibility for monitoring the reports made and taking the decisions on recommendations.
However, as this client is listed, we are prohibited from undertaking internal audit services which relate to a significant part of the controls over financial reporting.
As such we must decline the additional work. (上述内容也可得到3分)